How to Come up with an Get shut of for Your Logical Paper

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This can be a short, self-contained piece of writing which will describes an even better work. Introduction Something motivated you to experience this niche (an declaration, question, disappointment you experienced), so allow reader as part of your head. four. Explaining your scientific document in an eliminate of 300 words might be challenging, but if you act like you divide typically the writing method into plausible steps, the task will be much more manageable.

Make use of correct verb tenses. It could be difficult to choose tense (present or beyond )to use within your document. 6th. 3. 3. Make sure you have enough time to view and analyze your work thoroughly.

1 . Compare wanted results with actual success, explain the outcomes in terms of the reason, suggest how a they could be advanced. 5 various. Lab information are an important part of almost all laboratory training systems, including Physics, Biology, Chemistry, Natural Scientific discipline, and usually a substantial part of your company grade.

Custom composition writing by means of expert editors

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How to Create Good Deficiency of Essays? Crafting Guide

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How to Create Good Deficiency of Essays? Crafting Guide

Authority is a pretty long-term and interesting subject to think about. The arena of authority is quite broad; therefore , a selection of themes is diverse. No matter which a single you choose, one must always remember that your primary aim should be to present a detailed, well-structured, searched, and argumentative piece. You might tell a story about your experience as a chief executive or forecast about the abstrakt features and traits political leaders may experience. No matter which thought you choose, it is necessary to stay centered and stick to the academic measures of authoring. If you are uncertain that you know simple tips to do that, after that check all of our leadership essay guide!

Choose an outline

Prior to beginning writing some paper themselves, you should package it mindfully. With a detailed go over at hand, you’ll not lose the thread. It is actually especially important should you have a large wallpaper to write a plan will help your keep anything you want within mind, which means that no vital point could be missed. The structure and order may be changed further.

When building an outline, you may start with a shorter overview of direction as a idea or the own direction experience (depending on the issue you choose). Then nearly highlight the leading ideas with the body sentences and thought process the purchase. At this point, you should know what is the leading claim you’ll certainly be stating as part of your paper. Understand that your main thought should be stated gradually to leave your number of people understand the level you are planning to make.

The writing method

  • Entrance paragraph

What makes an effective leader essay? Primarily, it is a good introduction by using a well-thought thesis statement. The introduction passage is your chance to evoke interest in the audience, present your niche, and force the reader it to be important. A great introduction goes up your programs to craft a strong put, so spend special attention to the part.

The majority writers recommend to include a good so-called land to your preliminaries paragraph. The facts? In simple words, an important hook can be an eye-catching sentence that helps to grab the readers’ focus. This might turn into a short personal story, statistical information or maybe even something hilarious. Everything depend on which type of printer paper and topic you are working on. Also, don’t forget to express your primary idea in a thesis survey that should look at the end of this introduction passage.

  • Body

Decent leadership documents contain a assortment of detailed paragraphs that publish and support a thesis statement. Every next part should covers the main content and present a unique strategy. However , all those ideas be required to make an impression of a single whole. Don’t forget that each sentences is a mini-essay that needs to enjoy a structure opening sentence, body system, and ending. Add prices to make the claims sound credible. Check as many options related to this issue as you can uncover and employ them to backwards your arguments up. Merely don’t depend on the experts’ thought totally leave an area for your own inspiration and speculations. Your professor will be interested to see your own stuff.

  • Finish

You require a clear and memorable consideration to make your reader close the paper and say: ‘Wow! ‘ Techniques to do that? Make sure you mention just about every important factor of your deliver the results and amount them up. Then paraphrase your main maintain, the one you could have revealed in a thesis. Get in touch the main claims to the rest of the sentences and provide a general conclusion, one which sums up everything you have said before. The good thing to make your readership remember your paper should be to end that with a attention grabbing or rhetorical question. Make sure you exclude virtually any new details from your last paragraph.

If you are done

Similar to other schoolwork, essays relating to leadership can not be considered as executed before you revise these individuals carefully. Is actually extremely important to read simple things and read again your paper for a couple of times before the submission move. Of course , will probably be thinking that that is just a waste of time, but this is simply not the way options really are. It’s likely that, that errors, confusing essay sentences, and formatting errors have sneaked with your paper unnoticed. However , make sure your prof, will recognise them together and this will cost you a rating. So take on 30 minutes of your energy to read and revise your projects carefully.

  • Check sentence structure, punctuation, and spelling (use online checkers to fasten the process)
  • Browse your paper documents http://writemypapers.guru aloud right from the start to the end to make sure that it sounds logically
  • Ensure that you have restated your thesis statement from the conclusion section
  • Check if your main topic may be guessed without knowing how this might sound it is a fabulous way to comprehend if your newspapers is relevant
  • Inquire someone else to present your dimensions a final search chances are that possibly you have overlooked a errors
  • Come to be critical to yourself and eliminate/change inadequate parts of the paper

Well, this is why you write an essay about leader or any type of other identical topic. As you can see, general producing rules are essential to follow no matter what type of coursework you are publishing. So make use of this guide and that we hope you will write and submit the top leadership wallpaper in class!

Authoring essays upon history is mostly a task that really needs special deal with. What makes the best history go? First and foremost, you should gather enough research items and purchase familiar with the topic. Next, you must know the topic and come up with a few arguments to convey. Your disputes should think your knowledge and allow readers with comprehensible tips. Don’t forget to generate notes after a research and compose plans to keep up with the average structure. And remember the most important skill you need to construct a history essay or dissertation is an power to analyze the whole story and build informal connections together. Now today i want to talk about the following in more item.

Before you start composing

Like any various academic paper, your history assignment includes a list of guidance from your prof.. The central question is without question your main focus and you have to stick to it. You will be incredibly resourceful in your writing, but when it isn’t relevant to the leading theme, then you will surely not succeed the task. And so read and reread the instructions for a couple of times and think carefully about these people. Think about the situations and resources you need to study and have an understanding of before you start posting. If there are many gaps within your understanding, then you should make sure to fill them or perhaps ask the tutor to get an additional consulting. There is nothing wrong in asking for clarifications and it is much better to do this if you have complications. This will supply you with a clue and save your time.

Today i want to imagine that you could have a topic associated with the World Struggle II. A few of the specific community circumstances the fact that made it practical? What are the politics interests mixed up in event? Beginning with such general questions, you’re going to immediately move to the main body shape, ideas, and specific conditions that trialled a significant task in this customs event. You will need to determine of which time frames and factors to consider which will be a terrific starting point for your go about back ground.

Try to avoid the initial ideas that come to your head. You don’t have to do it again thoughts you could have read any place else, but experience them to operate an effective way. Think about the meaning from the historical function, the associations between actions, etc . Well then rethink these individuals and you will look for weak areas of your reasons. This is not always easy and chances are that you will get bewildered. However , need not panic misunderstandings is a good indication, which means that the clarity is likely to come fast. If you are sensing too mixed up, then have a small sleeping and come back to your work later on ,. Coming up with a pioneering and bright, noticeable idea is hard, but critical.

Writing as well as essay: the process

  • Arrival

The first sentence is extremely important. Your introduction needs to be informative and eye-catching. You may make definitions into the central techniques, provide a short background, and demonstrate that you understand the question totally. State some time frames and core situations you are going to talk about. To grab the readers’ attention, you may write something compelling and provocative, something that will likely make them question what is following.

When checking your intro to probiotics benefits, the mentor will make sure that you’re most likely analytical and relevant. Can not fall into two most common faults students do. The first one is going to be ignoring the primary question as well as second people are an attempt to retell the actions of the doj without selling any evaluation.

  • Overall body of your dissertation

What is history documents writing? It happens to be all about clarity. Remember that readers should be extremely certain to the question that you are examining. You could start developing your system paragraphs with some general issues and then in order to specific recommendations supported by evidence and quotations. Consider the term count and think about the sum of points you should give. The main confrontations need work, because you need to cover these folks entirely. Not as important details can be summarized briefly. It is important to make yourself knowledgeable about the interpretations of professional researchers when you begin writing the own. Simultaneously, don’t rely on the historians entirely, as this won’t choose your arguments at any rate convincing. You are able to argue with them and pinpoint some thing you believe isn’t going to be meaningful enough.

  • The paragraph

In your prior paragraphs, you have got been featuring some details, analyzing all of them, and providing your ideas. Now the time has come to make a in sum. If you have been getting acquainted with a couple of different positions, you now need to status which one is more superior. If you have been evaluating two good reasons of the function, now you should certainly provide the choice which one is more likely to be so? This is your summing up and you should plan it certainly.

Also, don’t include any sort of facts you didn’t state before. Just about every new idea requires data and study, so you can’t end the paper with it. This will likely make your the end irrelevant and can cost you a fabulous grade. Return to your main query. Can you solution it now convincingly and briefly? Fantastic! This is exactly some thing you should accomplish in a finish.

Additional assistance

There is you secret that may assist you understand how to set a history composition: be self-critical. Get ready to revise and rethink the arguments if they are not very relevant or low. Make self-criticizing a habit and never settle for mediocre benefits. When your educators give you a opinions, try to keep in mind it. This is certainly your fantastic chance to get employed as a better article writer and compose brilliant writings. If your professor doesn’t provide you with an what sorts of how to transform your life writing, then you definitely have a right to request an individual.

Remember that two mains circumstances make an composition really great: relevance and persuasive argumentation. The overall structure noted above is an example, to help you to change it favoring the use of argumentation generating. The number of methods to compose an important paper is virtually endless, because your writing is and the choice of express yourself. Hence make it because unique when you are!

Right to Work for Refugees in Hong Kong: A Constitutional Study

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By LAM Man Ka, CHAN Evelyn, LI Yu Ting, and CHAN Ho Hin Jacky, LLB students at the Chinese University of Hong Kong (CUHK)

Refugees deserve more attention in Hong Kong. Source: Asia Times/Handout

Refugees,  asylum seekers and torture claimants  constitute  less  than one percent of Hong Kong’s (HK) population.[1]

However, the law imposes extensive restrictions on their right to work and provides inadequate protection for other socio-economic rights. This essay examines refugees’ right to work in HK from a constitutional perspective.   

The constitutionality of executive decisions restricting refugees’ right to work has been a controversial issue in HK. The readiness of HK courts to comply with international treaties such as the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) is evident in R v Sin Yau-ming (1991).[2]  Nevertheless, the courts have been reluctant to acknowledge the right to work as a constitutional right, even though this is a fundamental socioeconomic right in the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR).  Article 39(1) of the Basic Law (BL) provides that both the ICCPR and the ICESCR “shall be implemented through the laws” of the HKSAR.[3] As derived from our interview with Annie Li (Research and Policy Officer, Justice Centre Hong Kong), the reason for this is grounded in HK’s dualist approach to international law. Ribeiro PJ’s judgment in Ubamaka Edward Wilson v Secretary for Security & Anor demonstrated the dualist legal tradition, as he concluded that ratified international treaties are not legally binding if not translated into domestic law.[4] Thus, GA v Director of Immigration, which cited  Ubamaka, explicitly  states  that  the  right to work under Article 6 of the ICESCR is not enforceable.[5]  

Michael Ramsden, a professor at the Chinese University of Hong Kong Faculty of Law, argues that BL Article 39(1) is merely a “constitutional guarantee” that ICESCR would continue to be effective after the Handover of sovereignty from the U.K. to the PRC and that domestic legislation incorporating ICESCR would be conferred with constitutional status.[6] While we partially agree with this claim, Ramsden’s interpretation of the provision is limited. Since BL Article 8 already fulfills the purpose of ensuring “laws previously in force” will continue to be in effect, BL Article 39(1) would be redundant in practice if Ramsden’s interpretation was authoritative.[7 In order to move beyond this narrow interpretation, we would like to assert that the use of future tense “shall” implies that the Legislative Council has a constitutional obligation to implement ICESCR into local law. But legislators have yet to integrate ICESCR into domestic legislation holistically.[8] 

The ambiguity surrounding the legal status of the ICESCR in Hong Kong further deprives refugees of their fundamental rights. In  Mok Chi Hung  v  Director of Immigration, Cheung J stated that the ICESCR should merely be used as a “framework” for the executive’s decision-making.[9]  Although it is a constitutional requirement for policies and legislation to be sufficiently clear and accessible to the public under the “prescribed by law” principle in BL Article 39(2), the government could potentially restrict rights without proper justification if the ICESCR is only treated as a reference document. Hence, we argue that the partial implementation of the ICESCR is unconstitutional due to the uncertainty in the law, as refugees, among other vulnerable groups, would not be able to understand which rights actually apply to them. In  Chan To  Foonv Director of Immigration, the Court of  First Instance stated that ICESCR is “aspirational” and not legally binding.[10]  However, there have been examples where the ICESCR has been implemented in executive decisions, such as facilitating a minimum living standard and providing social welfare through the Social Welfare Department’s Humanitarian Assistance  Programme. This suggests that rights under the ICESCR are not entirely “aspirational” in nature. Therefore, refugees’ right to work may also be incorporated under the current legal framework for socio-economic rights.   

When juxtaposed to the idealism shown in ICESCR (which states that everyone should enjoy the right to work), a potential  solution would be to incorporate the  Convention Relating to the Status of the Refugees into domestic legislation, as it explicitly states that refugees should enjoy the right to work. However, this is not realistic in the context of HK. According to BL Article 151, the HK government has no authority to “implement agreements on its own” with “international organizations” for human rights.[11]  This is because the types of agreements stated within the exhaustive list of the BL do not mention human rights. Taking this limitation into account, it is only reasonable to further investigate solutions concerning the right to work from different ways of implementing the ICESCR.   

One possible solution would be to integrate the ICESCR into local legislation, which would bestow the domestic law with a constitutional status. The language of the domestic law incorporating ICESCR should be amended by the legislature to precisely define the rights, allowing it to be reasonably foreseeable and legally enforceable. Under these circumstances, all legislation enacted by the legislature and administrative decisions made by the executive must correspond to the BL. Otherwise, they would be  ultra vires  and declared invalid under the doctrine of constitutional supremacy.  

Another possible solution would be to emulate the approach taken by courts of the United Kingdom (UK), which also follow the dualist legal tradition. When interpreting legislation, British courts assume that legislation is not intended to contravene the UK’s duty to comply with ratified international treaties. Thus, even though the ICESCR is not incorporated into UK domestic law, legislators must take its provisions into account when passing laws.[12 HK courts (under the BL Article 84) could apply this assumption by using the British case  Litster  v Forth Dry Dock & Engineering Co. Ltd.[13]  as persuasive authority. This would ensure consistent application of the ICESCR and grant refugees natural justice when claiming their rights.   

Currently, statistics on the number of refugees granted the right to work and information on the process of executive decision-making are not public. Thus, we suggest that the public should be able to hold the government accountable and ensure that the executive adheres to the relevant laws, particularly when the Director of Immigration’s exercises discretionary power in giving refugees permission to be employed. This can be achieved by increasing the transparency of the procedure. Regardless of the solution adopted, refugees should receive basic protection of their right to work to ensure that they will have a reasonable standard of living.  

The views expressed in this post are the author’s own and do not necessarily reflect Justice Centre’s stance. 

References:

  1. Facts. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.justicecentre.org.hk/facts/.
  2. R v Sin Yau-ming (1991) 1 HKPLP 88, [1992] 1 HKCLR 127.
  3. Basic Law Full Text – chapter (1). (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.basiclaw.gov.hk/en/basiclawtext/chapter_1.html.
  4. Ubamaka Edward Wilson v Secretary for Security & Anor [2013] 2 HKC 75.
  5. GA v Director of Immigration (2014) 17 HKCFAR 6.
  6. Using International Law in Hong Kong Courts: An Examination of Non-Refoulement Litigation. Common Law World Review (2013)Retrieved from http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1350/clwr.2013.42.4.0259.
  7. Basic Law Full Text – chapter (1). (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.basiclaw.gov.hk/en/basiclawtext/chapter_1.html.
  8. Using the ICESCR in Hong Kong Courts. Hong Kong Law Journal(2012). Retrieved from https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2160777.
  9. Mok Chi Hung v Director of Immigration [2001] 2 HKLRD 125.
  10. Chan To Foon v Director of Immigration [2001] 3 HKLRD 109.
  11. Basic Law Full Text – chapter (1). (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.basiclaw.gov.hk/en/basiclawtext/chapter_1.html.
  12. Judicial Committee on Human Rights of The House of Commons (2004) The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights Twenty-first Report of SessionRetrieved from https://publications.parliament.uk/pa/jt200304/jtselect/jtrights/183/183.pdf (27 March 2018.
  13. Judicial Committee on Human Rights of The House of Commons (2004) The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights Twenty-first Report of Session. Retrieved from https://publications.parliament.uk/pa/jt200304/jtselect/jtrights/183/183.pdf (27 March 2018 ).

Torture survivors in Hong Kong: to protect or to exclude?

Published on . Posted in Advocacy, Blog, LEGCO, Refugee, Torture

IMG_7640

Justice Centre’s submission ahead of the LegCo session on June 7.

Posted by Jordan Johnson

On June 7, about three weeks before the International Day in Support of Victims of Torture, the Hong Kong Legislature invited residents to speak with them at the “Legislative Council Complex” (‘LegCo Complex’) about the United Nations Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment (‘UNCAT’). In anticipation of coming elections, in January this year Hong Kong’s Chief Executive, Leung Chun-Ying, suggested pulling out of the UNCAT to deal with what has been described as Hong Kong’s “fake” refugee problem. With a laptop and a few colleagues from Justice Centre Hong Kong, I went to the LegCo Complex to take notes ahead of the next session on UNCAT when our Executive Director would give a deputation about protecting torture survivors.

The LegCo Complex is an awe inspiring display of wealth fitting for the “multimillionaire capital of the world.” Walking through the building, one has the impression of living some twenty years in the future. The outer walls are “double-layered,” “ventilated” glass “curtains”, which apparently cool the building while still flooding its centre with light. On the roof, “a variety of plants” provide a “green landscape” and “reduce solar heat gain.” The escalators, we quickly discover, are motion activated, a source of some confusion and several momentary losses of balance on June seventh. Beside electronic lockers, grey suited attendants wait to hand you a receipt that prints automatically.

1 protection claimant: 20 millionaires

While a rise in the number of people seeking asylum has caused concern throughout the world, Hong Kong citizens have, according to any objective measure, very little to worry about. There are only about 11,200 people seeking protection in Hong Kong; in other words, far less than one percent of the population. For some points of reference: in Hong Kong there are over 200,000 millionaires; which is to say, about twenty millionaires for each protection claimant; in Turkey there are now nearly three million refugees; in Greece, a country with a population about the size of Hong Kong’s and an economy that is significantly smaller, there are nearly four times more people seeking protection than in Hong Kong.

Not only are there few protection claimants coming to Hong Kong, the government currently operates one of the least generous protection systems in the developed world. The Immigration Department, in ostensible accord with international standards, assesses whether protection claimants face a real risk of torture, persecution, cruel, inhumane, or degrading treatment if returned to their country of origin. However, while recognition rates internationally are around 30%, in Hong Kong only 0.6% of protection claimants are found by the authorities to face such risk/s. In addition, Hong Kong has not signed the 1951 UN Refugee Convention and does not recognise anyone as an actual “refugee”; those who are fortunate enough to make it into the 0.6% are simply safe from removal until the UN Refugee Agency is able to find another country willing to accept them for resettlement, depending on their case.

Rhetoric

After being handed our locker receipts, we have our way to the conference room pointed out by more grey suited attendants positioned crumb-like, every four or five meters along the path. In the upper mezzanine of Conference Room One, the seats and carpet match the grey of the attendant’s uniforms, which I notice has an azure tinge that seems in keeping with the Complex’s “Sky is Always Blue” design theme and its commitment to harmony with the natural environment; both of which you can read about at length on the Legislative Council’s website. Among the many “green-features” described online, I am most impressed by the coruscated “natural light funnel,” which directs and scatters sunlight into the Council’s Chamber “minimiz[ing] the use of artificial light.” Before finally sitting down, we are handed headphones so that we can hear, in one of three languages, what brought each speaker to the Complex today.

The first speaker oddly has not prepared any remarks, but speaker two enthusiastically introduces the theme of the session: the legislature needs to do more to protect residents from protection claimants. After describing himself as an “ordinary citizen,” a self-description we’ll hear again and again today, he goes on to say that “refugees” are responsible for threats, murder, and violence; that they’re a “cancer” that needs to be excised; that Hong Kong has spent billions of taxpayer dollars on them. He quickly continues, testing my transcription skills and surely the skills of the live translators, insisting that they’re not “real” refugees, they’re using “legal loopholes” to come to Hong Kong and make money, and that Hong Kong needs to be more severe to prevent others from coming.

At the three minute mark he is cut off abruptly and speaker number three begins. It turns out there is a three minute rule that is strictly enforced, obliging the following speakers to compress their worries into what turns out to be one sonata like recitation of xenophobic motifs after another, all of which you could hear pretty much anywhere in the world. Donald Trump’s Mexican-rapist remark is echoed, though here it is used in reference to Southeast Asians. Hong Kong “No-Go Zones” are referred to in different terms. You can hear France’s Marine Le Pen in claims that Hong Kong’s culture is being threatened, and, most jarring, you can hear echoes from Europe’s past in demands that the refugees be placed in closed camps.

IMG_7641

Our Executive Director, Piya Muqit, speaking at LegCo on June 11.

While the rhetoric is in most respects generic, there remains, nonetheless, a flavour of the local. There is no more familiar a claim than “we would like to help torture survivors and other people seeking protection, but we just don’t have the means.” The Hong Kong variation on this theme has the speakers arguing, with only an occasional sense of irony, that Hong Kong is weak, is a child, is poor in relation to the West that is strong, adult, and rich. Respect for human rights, it is argued repeatedly, is fine for the adult West, but Hong Kong is simply not capable of providing protection for refugees, even if it wanted to – though to be sure it is clear these speakers do not want it to. An older man who makes this argument goes on to explain that while Hong Kongers fight with fists, refugees fight with spades, chains, and cement bags.

A system to exclude

Near the end of the session, I’m having trouble transcribing the increasingly rapid speeches, and I am not being helped by the seemingly exhausted translators who are now switching off mid-speech. Mercifully, a woman begins to speak in slow, deliberate English. After thanking the legislature for the opportunity to speak, she says her name is Adella, she’s a protection claimant from Africa, and she needs the government’s protection. She does not tell us why she fled her country, but the threat she faces in Hong Kong is felt palpably in a room full of Hong Kongers who appear to consider her part of a cancer. She goes on to suggest what should be obvious: the government’s asylum policies, which reject 99.4% of claims and offer a life of legal limbo to the  remaining 0.6%, function to deny meaningful protection to the one person in the room who actually needs it. After the session finishes, we see Adella on our way out of the Complex surrounded by photographers with snapping cameras. It is common now for protection claimants to hide their face in similar situations for fear of being targeted by the government or other Hong Kongers, but Adella just smiles nicely and keeps walking.

The Legislative Council Complex was completed in 2012 as a part of the larger five billion dollar Tamar Project. The project includes the massive Central Government Complex built to resemble an open door and the 17,000 square metre Tamar park with “spacious green lawns, rolling out like ‘green carpets” to the edge of Hong Kong’s “picturesque Victoria harbour.” The Legislative Council website explains that the design was meant to “integrate both elements of…openness and empathy.” While Hong Kong’s judiciary has made meaningful reforms aimed at providing protection for torture survivors and other claimants, the effect has been to create the appearance of protection while reinforcing a system designed to exclude. One hopes that the legislature will overcome the politics of fear so that in twenty years time, when we’re all used to motion activated escalators and a little more natural light indoors, Hong Kong’s commitment to openness and empathy won’t be realized in architecture alone.

_MG_2484 copyJordan Johnson is a member of the Protection Claimant Services team at Justice Centre Hong Kong. He is an American student pursuing a  JD from Columbia Law School and a masters degree in Economic Law and Global Governance at the Sciences-Po École de Droit in Paris.

 

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